Как астрономы измеряют расстояние до звёзд и галактик.

Астрономы используют несколько методов для измерения расстояние в космосе. Эти методы “работают” на разных масштабах.

Параллакс.
Параллакс – наиболее точный метод основанный на измерении положение звезд относительно намного более удалённых “звёзд фона” при наблюдениях из противоположных точек земной орбиты. Далее по простым тригонометрическим формулам угловое смещение преобразуется в линейное расстояние(чем больше смещение – тем меньше расстояние

Цефеиды.
Цефеиды – яркие массивные звезды, периодически меняющие свой блеск. Между длительностью периода пульсации цефеид и средней мощностью их излучения существует зависимость. Определив по этой зависимости абсолютную яркость звезды и зная ее видимый блеск, можно вычислить расстояние до неё. Метод работает также также для ближайших галактик, разрешаемых на отдельные звезды с помощью современных телескопов.

Сверхновые типа Ia.
Сверхновые типа Ia – определённый тип двойных систем с белым карликом, характеризующихся перетеканием вещества на него. При достижение им некоего предела массы происходит грандиозный термоядерный взрыв, в ходе которого выделяется огромное количество энергии. Поскольку этот предел для всех белых карликов равен примерно 1,4 солнечной массы, мощность таких вспышек тоже почти одинаково.

Красное смещение.
Красное смещение – это сдвиг спектров небесных объектов в более длинноволновую область, возникающий благодаря их удалению в результате расширения Вселенной. Величина сдвига(красное смещение z) зависит от скорости удаления, которая, в свою очередь, пропорциональна расстоянию. Метод ненадежен из – за необходимости учета космологической модели. Применяется для измерения удаленности галактик, находящихся за пределами Местной группы(более чем в 10 млн световых лет от нас) и практически вплоть до наблюдаемой границы Вселенной.

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